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Bryn Mawr College Histories

Citation Guidelines for Publishing Content from Special Collections

Providing detailed citations for collection materials allows staff, college community members, and outside researchers to easily locate and reference collections. Often, inquiries are sent to Special Collections staff about an image found on a college website or online exhibit. When these images do not have citations, it can be difficult or impossible for staff to determine their source in order to provide rights information, permission to publish, or locate high resolution files.

Digitized materials sourced from the College Archives, Rare Books & Manuscripts, and Art & Artifacts collections should have properly formatted citations when published on any website, blog, or online exhibit. Citations should also be used for physical publications and exhibits. If citations cannot be included on exhibit labels, they should at least be carefully documented in a shared location. In addition, citations should be provided to college community members and outside researchers who plan to publish digital content sourced from Special Collections.

Chicago Citation Style: Notes and Bibliography

Citation Formatting - Notes and Bibliography Style

There are two different systems for citing sources in Chicago Style, Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date. Check your assignment to be sure you're using the correct style. The sample citations below show full citations followed by shortened citations for the same source. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes.

Notes

1. Author Full Name, Title of document, day month year of publication/copyright date. Item Identifier*, Source, Collection.

Shortened notes

2. Author Last Name, Title, page number if relevant.

Bibliography entry (in alphabetical order)

Author Last name, Author First Name. Title of document. Day month year of publication/copyright date. Source, Collection.

*Item Identifiers are Call Numbers/RG Numbers/Accession Numbers, including any volume/series/box/folder/letter numbers, or file names that enable item-level identification.

In some cases, a creator/author's name or date is unknown. If this is the case, that information can be omitted. If there is no date, indicate this with "n.d." At a minimum, citations should always include a title and item identifiers. Medium is an optional identifier. If item is found online, this should include URL.

Citation Examples

Photographs

Photograph of Eleanor Roosevelt, covering her eyes from the sun and smiling, looking on as workers do some sort of manual labor in a field.

Notes

1. Eleanor Roosevelt, c1921-38, photograph, 3.34 x 4.9 in. (8.5 x 12.5 cm), Bryn Mawr College Photo Archives, BMC-Photo Archives, Series I, PAE, SSWWI_00158.

Shortened notes

2. Eleanor Roosevelt.

Bibliography entry

Eleanor Roosevelt. c1921-38. Photograph. 3.34 x 4.9 in. (8.5 x 12.5 cm). Bryn Mawr College Photo Archives, BMC-Photo Archives, Series I, PAE, SSWWI_00158.

Page from a Book

Botanical illustration of pink rose, the common name of which is the Rose of Orleans.

Notes

1. Pierre Joseph Redouté, "Rosa Gallica Aurelianensis," in Les Roses, vol. 3, 1817, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, plate no. 129.

Shortened notes

2. Redouté, "Rosa Gallica Aurelianensis," plate no. 129.

Bibliography entry

Redouté, Pierre Joseph. "Rosa Gallica Aurelianensis." In Les Roses. Vol. 3, Plate No. 129. Bryn Mawr College Special Collections. 1817.

Letter from an archival collection

Notes

1. Nathalie Gookin to her mother, 26 January 1920, BMC-A82-39, Box 3, Folder 13, Letter 1032, Nathalie Gookin Papers, Bryn Mawr Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Shortened Notes

2. Gookin, Letter 1032.

Bibliography entry

Gookin, Nathalie. Nathalie Gookin Papers. Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

For material from a larger archival collection, like a letter, it is often appropriate to cite the papers as if it were a whole work in the bibliography while identifying the specific item cited in the notes.

Newspaper article

Front page of Bryn Mawr College student newspaper from 1918 with article referenced below highlighted.

Notes

1. "College Brought Safely Through Epidemic," College News 5, no. 5, 31 October 1918, 1, Bryn Mawr Special Collections. 

Shortened Notes

2. "College Brought Safely Through Epidemic," 1.

Bibliography entry

"College Brought Safely Through Epidemic." College News 5, no. 5, 31 October 1918. Bryn Mawr Special Collections. 

Oral history

Notes

1. Chloe Garrell, interview by Caitlin Jaskett, 7 July 2019, Jewish Mawrters Oral History Collection, BMC-RG12-OHJ-04, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Shortened Notes

2. Chloe Garrell interview.

Bibliography entry

Garrell, Chloe. Interview by Caitlin Jaskett. 7 July 2012. Jewish Mawrters Oral History Collection, BMC-RG12-OHJ-04. Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Artifact

Notes

1. [Bowl with Butter Bean Imagery], 100 BCE-750 CE, clay, 2 7/16 in. x 6 11/16 in. x 6 11/16 in. (6.25 cm x 17 cm x 17 cm), Ward M. Canaday Collection, 69.1.261, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Shortened Notes

2. [Bowl with Butter Bean Imagery].

Bibliography entry

[Bowl with Butter Bean Imagery]. 100 BCE-750 CE. Clay. 2 7/16 in. x 6 11/16 in. x 6 11/16 in. (6.25 cm x 17 cm x 17 cm). Ward M. Canaday Collection, 69.1.261, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Painting

Notes

1. Robert Brackman, Katharine Elizabeth McBride, September 1950, oil on canvas, 66 x 50 x 5 in. (167.64 x 127 x 12.7 cm), Portraits of Bryn Mawr Presidents, 1950.47, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Shortened Notes

2. Brackman, Katharine Elizabeth McBride.

Bibliography entry

Brackman, Robert. Katharine Elizabeth McBride. September 1950. Oil on canvas. 66 x 50 x 5 in. (167.64 x 127 x 12.7 cm). Portraits of Bryn Mawr Presidents, 1950.47, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Chicago Style: Author-Date

Citation Formatting - Author-Date Style

There are two different systems for citing sources in Chicago Style, Notes and Bibliography and Author-Date. Check your assignment to be sure you're using the correct style. Author-Date style is almost identical to Notes and Bibliography style except that instead of providing footnotes, it uses parenthetical citations to identify sources in text. Each source is then cited in a bibliography at the end of the paper.

Author Last Name, First Name. Date. Title or description of item. Item identifier*, Name of Collection, Name of Repository, Location of Repository.

*Item Identifiers are Call Numbers/RG Numbers/Accession Numbers, including any volume/series/box/folder/letter numbers or filenames that enable item-level identification. 

In some cases an author/creator’s name or date is unknown. If that is the case, that information is usually omitted. At a minimum, citations should always include a title and item identifier.

Citation Examples

Photographs

Author-date style citations are not normally used to cite images. Instead, information about the image should be placed in a caption or in parentheses in the text of your work. Use bibliography formatting for this citation.

Eleanor Roosevelt. Photograph. c1921-38. From Bryn Mawr College Photo Archives, BMC-Photo Archives, Series I, PAE, SSWWI_00158.

Page from a book

Redouté, Pierre Joseph. "Rosa Gallica Aurelianensis." In Les Roses. Vol. 3, Plate No. 129. Bryn Mawr College Special Collections. 1817.

Parenthetical: (Redouté 1817, plate no. 129)

Letter from an archival collection

Gookin, Nathalie. "Letter to her mother." Nathalie Gookin Papers. 26 January 1920. BMC-A82-39, Box 3, Folder 13, Letter 1032. Bryn Mawr Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Parenthetical: (Gookin 1920, letter 1032)

Newspaper article

"College Brought Safely Through Epidemic." College News 5, no. 5, 31 October 1918. Bryn Mawr Special Collections.

Parenthetical: ("College Brought Safely Through Epidemic" 1918, 1)

Oral history

Garrell, Chloe. Interview by Caitlin Jaskett. 7 July 2019. Jewish Mawrters Oral History Collection, BMC-RG12-OHJ-04. Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

Parenthetical: (Garrell 2019)

Artifact

[Bowl with Butter Bean Imagery]. 100 BCE-750 CE. Clay. 2 7/16 in. x 6 11/16 in. x 6 11/16 in. (6.25 cm x 17 cm x 17 cm). Ward M. Canaday Collection, 69.1.261, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: ([Bowl with Butter Bean Imagery] 100 BCE-750 CE)

Painting

Author-date style citations are not normally used to cite images. Instead, information about the image should be placed in a caption or in parentheses in the text of your work. Use bibliography formatting for this citation.

Brackman, Robert. Katharine Elizabeth McBride. September 1950. Oil on canvas. 66 x 50 x 5 in. (167.64 x 127 x 12.7 cm). Portraits of Bryn Mawr Presidents, 1950.47, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA.

APA Citation Style

Citation Formatting

Author/Creator Last Name, Initial. (Year, Month and Day). Title of item [Item Description]. Title of Publication/Collection (Item Identifier*), Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical Citation: (Author/Creator Last Name, year)

*Item Identifiers are Call Numbers/RG Numbers/Accession Numbers, including any volume/series/box/folder/letter numbers or filenames that enable item-level identification. 

In some cases an author/creator’s name or date is unknown. If that is the case, that information is usually omitted. At a minimum, citations should always include a title and item identifier.

Citation Examples

Photographs

[Photograph of Eleanor Roosevelt]. (1921-1938). Bryn Mawr College Photo Archives (BMC-Photo Archives, Series I, PAE, SSWWI_00158), Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: ([Photograph of Eleanor Roosevelt], ca. 1921-1938)

Because the photograph doesn't have an author, the bracketed description used in place of a proper title is moved to the author position for reference.

Page from a book

Redouté, P. J. (1817). Rosa gallica aurelianensis. In Les roses (Vol. 3, plate no. 129), Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States. 

Letter from an archival collection

Gookin, N. (1920, January 26). [Letter to Nathalie Gookin's mother]. Nathalie Gookin Papers (BMC-A82-39, Box 3, Folder 13, Letter 1032), Bryn Mawr Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: (Gookin, 1920)

Because the letter does not have a title given by the creator, a description is given in square brackets.

Newspaper

College brought safely through epidemic. (1918, October 31). College News, Vol. V, No. 5. (BMC-News-vol5-no5), Bryn Mawr Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: (College brought safely through epidemic, 1918)

Because there is no author for the article, the title is moved up in place of the author for reference.

Oral history

Garrell, C. (2019, July 7). Chloe Garrell interviewed by Caitlin Haskett [Digital recording]. Jewish Mawrters Oral History Collection (BMC-RG12-OHJ-04), Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: (Garrell, 2019)

Interviews and oral histories should be cited with the interviewee listed as the author and the interviewer's name listed in the title or description.

Artifact

[Bowl with butter bean imagery]. (100 BCE-750 CE). Ward M. Canaday Collection, 69.1.261, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: ([Bowl with butter bean imagery], 100 BCE-750 CE)

Painting

Brackman, R. (1950, September). Katharine Elizabeth McBride. Portraits of Bryn Mawr Presidents, 1950.47, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, United States.

Parenthetical citation: (Brackman, 1950)

MLA Citation Style

Citation Formatting

Author/Creator Last Name, First Name. Title. Date. Title of Publication/Collection, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, Item Identifier*.

*Item Identifiers are Call Numbers/RG Numbers/Accession Numbers, including any volume/series/box/folder/letter numbers or filenames that enable item-level identification. 

In some cases an author/creator’s name or date is unknown. If that is the case, that information is usually omitted. At a minimum, citations should always include a title and item identifier.

Citation Examples

Photographs

Eleanor Roosevelt1921-38? Bryn Mawr College Photo Archives, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, BMC-Photo Archives, Series I, PAE, SSWWI_00158.

If a document date is uncertain, add a question mark in lieu of a period after the date. If there is no author, omit author from citation.

Pages from a book

Redouté, Pierre Joseph. "Rosa Gallica Aurelianensis." Les Roses, plate no. 129, vol. 3, Bryn Mawr Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, f SB411.R31 1817.

Letters from an archival collection

Gookin, Nathalie. Letter from Nathalie Gookin to her mother. 26 January 1920. Nathalie Gookin Papers, Bryn Mawr Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, BMC-A82-39, Box 3, Folder 13, Letter 1032. Manuscript.

When citing letters, the entire date of the letter should be included after the title or description of letter. Optionally, you may indicate that a letter is handwritten by adding "manuscript" at the end of the entry.

Newspaper articles

"College Brought Safely Through Epidemic." College News [Bryn Mawr, PA], 31 October, 1918, p. 1, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, BMC-News-vol5-no5.

Oral histories

Garrell, Chloe. Interview. Conducted by Caitlin Haskett, 7 July 2019. Jewish Mawrters Oral History Collection, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, BMC-RG12-OHJ-04.

Interviewee should be listed as author. If the interview has no title, list "Interview" as title.

Artifacts

Bowl with Butter Bean Imagery. 100 BCE-750 CE? Ward M. Canaday Collection, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, 69.1.261.

Paintings

Brackman, Robert. Katharine Elizabeth McBride. 1950. Portraits of Bryn Mawr Presidents, Bryn Mawr College Special Collections, Bryn Mawr, PA, 1950.47.