Census vs. American Community Survey
Beginning in 2010, the American Community Survey replaced the Decennial Census for collecting detailed demographic information. The US Census no longer includes information on education, income and poverty, transportation, and other topics. Those data are now available from the ACS instead.
The 2010 Census only includes information about age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino origin, relationship, housing tenure (owner- and renter-occupied housing units).
For both kinds of data, the easiest place to start is Social Explorer (B H S). However, the American Factfinder has more detailed information if you don't find what you need from within Social Explorer. When in doubt, you can always ask a librarian for help.