Aristotle lectures to students in a medieval university setting, painted by Laurentius Voltolina (as inscribed), second half of the 14th century, Bologna (Berlin, Staatliche Museen Berlin) (Source: Wikimedia Commons)
The following sources provide overviews of ideas, people, and events in the history of classical aniquity and the Middle Ages. They are a quick way to find out the basic facts and current points of debate.
When using an article in an encyclopedia or handbook, always check the bibliography for further reading at the end of the article. It will provide a selective list of the books, articles, and, frequently, Web resources considered to be the most up-to-date and reliable.