Skip to Main Content

HIST 354: Amazons and Viragos: Gender and Power in Early Modern Europe (HC)

History 354 Amazons and Viragos: Gender and Power in Early Modern Europe (Graham) Spring 2023

Political Portrait


Attributed to Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Elizabeth I (The Rainbow Portrait), ca. 1602, Hatfield House

Source: Wikimedia Commons, Public domain. The painting is connected to practices of royal visits and masques as well

as rule, see Daniel Fischlin's “‘Political Allegory, Absolutist Ideology, and the "Rainbow Portrait" of Queen Elizabeth I” 


This guide focuses on the topics in your course and outlines research strategies and resources for your final project.  Use the searches and linked examples as jumping off points for exploration.

The Background Information page will help in developing your research questions and understanding the broader context for your particular interest. 

Recommended Reading:  The sections within Topics of Interest list TriCollege books that Professor Graham recommends for specific topics. 

The Scholarly Books page provides search examples from Tripod.  Journal Articles will give you access to scholarly articles for cultural and historical analyses.  

Primary Sources can provide more direct information from the relevant historical time period.  Using Visual Sources that relate to your project can often prompt ideas about the means of production, intended audience, and associated social and cultural meanings.

         See these other course research guides for additional sources:         

                                                      HIST 229: Spectacles of Power in Europe, 1550-1700   

                                                      HIST 358: The Self before the Selfie