For the most comprehensive guidelines, use the APA manual below.
For brief guidelines, see below.
Also see Purdue OWL's excellent coverage of APA style.
- Use 12-point Times New Roman.
- Double-space all parts of the paper.
- Use 1-inch margins on the top, bottom, right, and left of every page.
- Number each page, starting with the title page, in the top right corner.
References Page Format
- Center the title, References, on a new page.
- Double-space down to your first entry, and double-space the entire references list including the entries themselves.
- The first line of a reference should start at the left margin. Indent the second and subsequent lines of a multi-line reference.
- Alphabetize entries by author or by title if there is no author.
List of References
- Author names: Invert all authors’ names. Use initials for the author’s first and middle names. Separate the authors with a comma, and use an ampersand (&) before the last author listed.
- Publication date: Use the year only except in the case of magazines, newsletters, and newspaper articles in which case include the year, month, and day if available.
- Titles: Italicize the title of an entire work (e.g. periodical name) but not an entry within that work (e.g. an article within that periodical). For articles, only capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle. For periodical names, capitalize all important words.
- Publication information: For periodicals, include the volume number (italicized) followed by the issue number (not italicized), if applicable, in parentheses. Then give the article’s page number(s). Do not precede page numbers with p. or pp. except for newspaper articles.
- Electronic retrieval information:
- If available, include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) only. It is often found on the first page of a journal article.
- If a DOI is not available, include the home page URL of the work.
- Do not use an ending period for references ending in a DOI or URL.
Magazine article (print):
Dokoupil, T. (2007, October 22). Polarizing bears no more. Newsweek, 150(17), 16.
Newspaper article (print):
Henry, C. (2009, May 19). N.J. bill would require coverage for autism. The Philadelphia Inquirer, pp. A1, A4.
Newspaper article (electronic):
Krauss, C. (2007, October 18). Seeing sugar’s future in fuel. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Journal article with DOI (electronic):
Wanko, N.S., Brazier, C.W., Young-Rogers, D., Dunbar, V.G., Boyd, B., George, C.D.,…Cook, C.G. (2004). Exercise preferences and barriers in urban African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 30(3), 502-513. doi:10.1177/014572170403000322
Journal article without DOI (electronic):
Chuang, Y. (2005). Neighborhood watch: Power, conflict and urban local politics. Taiwan Journal of Anthropology, 3(2), 79-114. Retrieved from http://www.asia-studies.com/2tja.html
Inniss, J.P. (2009, September 7). When is silence golden? [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://nortonbooks.typepad.com/everydaysociology/
*Please note: The second and subsequent lines of a reference are indented (not shown here due to system limitations).
In-text citations tell your readers where you’ve gotten your information by referring them to a source in your references list.
Basic format: (author’s last name, year of publication)
where author is one of the authors in your references list.
- If there are multiple authors, precede the last author’s name with an ampersand (&).
- If the author is already named as part of the text, only the year is required.
- When citing a specific part of a source, such as a direct quotation, include the page number as part of the in-text citation in addition to the author’s name and year.
If this is the item on the References page…
Scroop, D. (2002). September 11th, Pearl Harbor and the uses of Presidential power. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 15(2), 317-327
…then these are examples of the in-text citation:
The world sees the American presidents, not other legislative leaders, as the leaders of America (Scroop, 2002).
Scroop (2002) believes that the world sees the American presidents, not other legislative leaders, as the leaders of America.
If an exact quotation is used, page number must be included:
It is American presidents, not other legislative leaders, who “personify American leadership in the eyes of the world” (Scroop, 2002, p.1).
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Badke, W. B. (2004). Research strategies: Finding your way through the information fog (2nd ed.). New York, NY: IUniverse.
Immaculata University. (2004). Searchpath: Citing sources. Retrieved from http://faculty.immaculata.edu/searchpath/mod6/index.html