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ASA Style and Format

American Sociological Association Style and Format Guide


  • Include last name(s) of the author(s) and year of publication.
  • Include page numbers for direct quotes or specific passages, and separate from the date with a colon and no space.

These elements could be in the text or in a parenthetical citation, like so:

   Doe’s study indicated that undergraduate students prefer classes starting 10:00am and later (2006).

   Student input was elicited through surveys and focus groups (Doe 2006).

   Focus groups revealed that “45 of the 52 students stayed up past midnight at least three nights per week, not for socializing, but to complete homework assignments” (Doe 2006:83).


1 author

…(Jackson 1997).


2 authors

…(Georges and Jones 2001).


3 authors

First citation: …(Smith, Waits, and Bowie 1999).

Subsequent citations: …(Smith et al. 1999).


More than 3 authors

…(Carson et al. 2013).


An author with multiple publications in same year

…(Magill 1982a).


Several references

…(Conan 2009; Franco 2011; Garofalo 2003).

List the series either alphabetically or in date order consistently.


Not-yet-published material

In an ethnographic study by Wojcik (forthcoming)…


No date available

…as Felix argued (N.d.).


Personal communication

Personal communication such as emails, telephone conversations, and interviews should be cited in a footnote or endnote and an in-text citation.

In-text: During the interview, Sherman discussed her experiences managing festivals.

Footnote: 1 Suzy Sherman, interview with author, February 12, 2013.