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ASA Style and Format

American Sociological Association Style and Format Guide


  • List references in alphabetical order by author’s surname.
  • Authors with multiple works should be listed from earliest to latest date.
  • Include the state abbreviation only if the city of publication is unclear.
  • Works that have been accepted for publication should be listed as (forthcoming).
  • Items with no date should be indicated with (N.d.).
  • When listing multiple items published by an author in the same year, distinguish the dates with letters (1979a, 1979b) and list in alphabetical order by title.


Book, 1 author

Buhs, Joshua Blu. 2009. Bigfoot: The Life and Times of a Legend. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


Book, 2 authors

Weiss, Penny A. and Loretta Kensinger. 2007. Feminist Interpretations of Emma Goldman. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.


Book, 3 or more authors

Fritz, Birgit, Ralph Yarrow, and Lana Sendzimir. 2012. Inexactart - The Autopoietic Theatre of Augusto Boal: A Handbook of Theatre of the Oppressed Practice. Stuttgart, Germany: Ibidem-Verlag.


Book, edited

Crenshaw, KimberleĢ, ed. 1995. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: New Press.


Chapter from book

Howard, Robert Glenn. 2009. “Crusading on the Vernacular Web: The Folk Beliefs and Practices of Online Spiritual Warfare.” Pp. 159-174 in Folklore and the Internet: Vernacular Expression in a Digital World, edited by T. J. Blank. Logan: Utah State University Press.


Journal article

Gray, Phillip W. 2013. “Leaderless Resistance, Networked Organization, and Ideological Hegemony.” Terrorism and Political Violence 25(5):655-671.


Newspaper article

Brus, Brian. 2011. “Innovators: OKC-Based Doodlycouch – Drawn to Art Therapy.” Journal Record (Oklahoma City, OK), May 2, pp. B2.


Archival source

Archive of Folk Culture, Vance Randolph Collection, Box 3, Folder 36, 1941-1972. Ozark Fiddle Tunes. American Folklife Center, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.


Government document (print)

U.S. Census Bureau. 2013. 2009-2013 American Community Survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.


Government document (online)

U.S. Council of Economic Advisers. 2014. “The War on Poverty 50 Years Later: A Progress Report.” Retrieved December 9, 2014 (


Conference paper

McNabb, Caroline. 2013. “Women’s Wisdom: Menarche Narratives and Body Politics.” Paper presented at the Northwest Anthropology Conference, March 27, Portland, OR.



American Sociological Association. 2014. “Section on Peace, War and Social Conflict.” Retrieved October 2, 2014 (


Blog post

Wade, Lisa. 2014. “When Force is Hardest to Justify, Victims of Police Violence are Most Likely to be Black.” Sociological Images Blog, November 28. Retrieved December 5, 2014 (



Commonplace Books. 2012. “Welcome to Night Vale.” Audio Podcast. Retrieved August 28, 2014 (


Audiovisual media

Firstenberg, Sam [Director]. 1984. Breakin’ 2: Electric Bugaloo. DVD. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment.


Personal communication

Should not appear in the reference list but should be cited in-text and with a footnote/endnote.