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HIST 065: Cities of (Im)migrants (SC): How to Format Citations (Chicago Style)

History 065: Cities of (Im)migrants: Buenos Aires, Lima, Miami, New York (Armus) Fall 2016

Citation Managers

Zotero: The Tri-College Libraries recommend Zotero, a free online app that can format your bibliography, keep your citations organized, and even save your articles in the cloud so you can access them later from the library, home, or a cafe.

EndNote Web: The Tri-Colleges provide free access to EndNote Web.

Any librarian will be happy to give your a tour or a few pointers of the software.


The most commonly used publication styles are created by the Modern Languages Association, the American Psychological Association, and the University of Chicago.  

  • APA: Style of the American Psychological Association.  Commonly used in Social Science.
  • MLA: Style of the Modern Language Association.  Commonly used in Languages and Literatures.
  • Chicago: Style set by University of Chicago. Commonly used in Humanities.  

No matter what style your professor requests, a citation manager can help you organize and cite your sources, and so can a librarian.  

Citation Builders


Chicago Format for In-Text Citations

Standage claims that the control of food determines how a person views his or her government.1

"Half the expense of the diet went on grain, 35 per cent on animal products, and the rest on potatoes."2

"There would seem therefore to be no doubt that the type of potato plant which reached Western Europe at the end of the sixteenth century must have been much like the types we now know were common in England prior to the latter half of the seventeenth century."3

"Blithely unaware of the numerous obstacles that the settlers would confront, administrators drew up plans for the establishment of the colonies."4

History has multiple perspectives, and therefore multiple truths.5

"From the outset, Whately's Irish commission seemed doomed to failure."6

There are few examples of historians who study a family before and after they immigrate to America.7

Your footnotes are as appears below this line.  

1. Standage, An Edible History of Humanity.

2. Clarkson, Feast and Famine, 63.

3. Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, 618-619.

4. Reader, Potato, 70.

5. Cayton, "Insufficient Woe: Sense and Sensibility in Writing Nineteenth-Century History."

6. Nally, "‘That Coming Storm,’" 718.

7. Anbinder, "From Famine to Five Points."


Anbinder, Tyler. “From Famine to Five Points: Lord Lansdowne’s Irish Tenants Encounter North America’s Most Notorious Slum.” The American Historical Review 107, no. 2 (2002): 351–387.

Cayton, Andrew R. L. “Insufficient Woe: Sense and Sensibility in Writing Nineteenth-Century History.” Reviews in American History 31, no. 3 (2003): 331–341.

Clarkson, Leslie A. Feast and Famine : Food and Nutrition in Ireland, 1500-1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Nally, David. “‘That Coming Storm’: The Irish Poor Law, Colonial Biopolitics, and the Great Famine.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 98, no. 3 (2008): 714–741.

Reader, John. Potato : a History of the Propitious Esculent. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Salaman, Redcliffe N. The History and Social Influence of the Potato. Cambridge: University Press, 1970.

Standage, Tom. An Edible History of Humanity. 1st U.S. ed. New York: Walker & Co., 2009.