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MUSC 223: Classical Styles (HC)

MUSC 223: Classical Styles (Freedman) Fall 2014

Search Tips

Boolean operators: 

AND, OR, NOT allow you to limit or expand searches depending on your needs.


Mannheim AND orchestra



piano OR klavier



Haydn NOT Michael (Joseph's younger brother)

Phrase searching:

An important strategy to employ when searching phrasal concepts or conducting known-item searches for titles:

  • For example, The World on the Moon (Haydn's opera buffa Il mondo della luna) will search for The AND World AND on AND the AND Moon.
  • However, "The World on the Moon" in quotation marks will search for the Haydn composition.


Nested Searching:

When pairing two or more keywords with another keyword, it is helfpul to "nest" the former terms within a larger Boolean search.

  • For example, "Da Ponte" AND (Mozart OR Salieri) will return results for librettist Da Ponte and collaborations with either Mozart, Salieri, or both.
  • Many catalogs or databases will have an "advanced search" option, which provides multiple search bars to facilitate nested searching.


Truncation and Wildcards:

Most catalogs and databases enable users to search variations of keywords by using truncation (*) or wildcard (e.g., ?, $, !) symbols.

  • For example, one could search for classic* to find classic, classical, classicism, and so on.
  • Wildcard searching works similarly: a search for mu??k would return musik (Ger), muzak, and so on.
  • Combining the two, viol?n* would return violin, violinist, violon (Fr), violoniste (Fr), violino (It), and so on.