AND, OR, NOT allow you to limit or expand searches depending on your needs.
Mannheim AND orchestra
piano OR klavier
Haydn NOT Michael (Joseph's younger brother)
An important strategy to employ when searching phrasal concepts or conducting known-item searches for titles:
- For example, The World on the Moon (Haydn's opera buffa Il mondo della luna) will search for The AND World AND on AND the AND Moon.
- However, "The World on the Moon" in quotation marks will search for the Haydn composition.
When pairing two or more keywords with another keyword, it is helfpul to "nest" the former terms within a larger Boolean search.
- For example, "Da Ponte" AND (Mozart OR Salieri) will return results for librettist Da Ponte and collaborations with either Mozart, Salieri, or both.
- Many catalogs or databases will have an "advanced search" option, which provides multiple search bars to facilitate nested searching.
Truncation and Wildcards:
Most catalogs and databases enable users to search variations of keywords by using truncation (*) or wildcard (e.g., ?, $, !) symbols.
- For example, one could search for classic* to find classic, classical, classicism, and so on.
- Wildcard searching works similarly: a search for mu??k would return musik (Ger), muzak, and so on.
- Combining the two, viol?n* would return violin, violinist, violon (Fr), violoniste (Fr), violino (It), and so on.