Beginning in 2010, the American Community Survey (ACS) replaced the Decennial Census for collecting detailed demographic information (age, sex, race, Hispanic or Latino origin, household relationships, housing tenure (owner- and renter-occupied housing units). The US Census no longer includes information on education, income and poverty, transportation, and other topics. Those data are now available from the ACS instead. The ACS is conducted annually to approximately 3.5 million addresses and documents social, economic, demographic and housing characteristics.
All census data is available at data.census.gov. American Fact Finder is longer updated as of June 2019.
For data from the Decennial census and the ACS, the easiest place to start is Social Explorer or PolicyMap.
When in doubt, you can always ask a librarian for help.