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ENVS 101: Case Studies in Environmental Issues (HC)

Environmental Studies 101: Case Studies in Environmental Issues (Smith and Wilson) Fall 2016

Critically Read Your Sources

Annotating is incredibly helpful, both for understanding a text and for synthesizing it for your paper.

Apply the CRAAP Test

How do you evaluate if a text is good? Try the CRAAP test!


  • When was it published?
  • Has it been revised or updated?
  • Does your topic require current information?


  • Does the information relate to your topic?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (not too elementary or too advanced)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before selecting this one?


  • Who is the author/creator and what are their credentials?
  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or email address?
  • If a Web source, what does the URL reveal (.edu, .gov, .org, .net)?


  • Is the information supported by evidence and citations?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Is the tone emotional or biased?
  • Are there any spelling or grammar issues?


  • Is the information intended to inform, teach, sell, entertain, or persuade?
  • Do the authors/creators make their intentions clear?
  • What are the biases (political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal)?