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MUSC 220: Saints and Sinners. Musical Europe before 1400 (HC)

Music 220: Saints and Sinners. Musical Europe before 1400 (Freedman) Fall 2013

Search Tips

Boolean operators: 

AND, OR, NOT allow you to limit or expand searches depending on your needs.


Machaut AND ars nova



lai OR lay



Earp (Lawrence Earp, Machaut scholar) NOT Wyatt (notorious lawman)

Phrase searching:

Use " " to group a specific phrase of words together. An important strategy to employ when searching phrasal concepts or conducting known-item searches for titles.

Nested Searching:

When pairing two or more keywords with another keyword, it is helfpul to "nest" the former terms within a larger Boolean search.

  • For example, Chopin AND (Sand OR Dupin OR Dudevant) will return results for Chopin and his partner, Amandine Aurore Lucille Dupin (aka, George Sand and the Baroness Dudevant).
  • Many catalogs or databases will have an "advanced search" option, which provides multiple search bars to facilitate nested searching.


Truncation and Wildcards:

Most catalogs and databases enable users to search variations of keywords by using truncation (*) or wildcard (e.g., ?, $, !) symbols.

  • For example, one could search for romantic* to find romantic, romanticism, romanticize, and so on.
  • Wildcard searching works similarly: a search for mu??k would return musik (Ger), muzak, and so on.
  • Combining the two, viol?n* would return violin, violinist, violon (Fr), violoniste (Fr), violino (It), and so on.