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POLS 002: American Politics (SC): Citing Sources

Political Science 002 (Nackenoff) Fall 2012

Citation Managers

Zotero: The Tri-College Libraries recommend Zotero, a free online app that can format your bibliography, keep your citations organized, and even save your articles in the cloud so you can access them later from the library, home, or a cafe.

EndNote Web: The Tri-Colleges provide free access to EndNote Web.

Any librarian will be happy to give your a tour or a few pointers of the software.

Need to cite in a hurry?

These quick citation builders create formatted citations from the source information (e.g. author, title, year published).

Important caveat: Proofread your citations before submitting them to your professor.  Citation builders are time-savers, but they sometimes add stray punctuation marks and create other errors.

Chicago and Turabian Guides

Chicago Style provides a consistent method for citing sources and formatting papers (and other academic works like journal articles). Turabian is very closely related to Chicago Style, with some minor modifications aimed primarily at students.  Either the Chicago or Turabian guide is acceptable for POLS 002.

Formatting Citations: Chicago Style

Chicago Format for In-Text Citations

Standage claims that the control of food determines how a person views his or her government.1

"Half the expense of the diet went on grain, 35 per cent on animal products, and the rest on potatoes."2

"There would seem therefore to be no doubt that the type of potato plant which reached Western Europe at the end of the sixteenth century must have been much like the types we now know were common in England prior to the latter half of the seventeenth century."3

"Blithely unaware of the numerous obstacles that the settlers would confront, administrators drew up plans for the establishment of the colonies."4

History has multiple perspectives, and therefore multiple truths.5

"From the outset, Whately's Irish commission seemed doomed to failure."6

There are few examples of historians who study a family before and after they immigrate to America.7

Your footnotes are as appears below this line.  

1. Standage, An Edible History of Humanity.

2. Clarkson, Feast and Famine, 63.

3. Salaman, The History and Social Influence of the Potato, 618-619.

4. Reader, Potato, 70.

5. Cayton, "Insufficient Woe: Sense and Sensibility in Writing Nineteenth-Century History."

6. Nally, "‘That Coming Storm,’" 718.

7. Anbinder, "From Famine to Five Points."


Anbinder, Tyler. “From Famine to Five Points: Lord Lansdowne’s Irish Tenants Encounter North America’s Most Notorious Slum.” The American Historical Review 107, no. 2 (2002): 351–387.

Cayton, Andrew R. L. “Insufficient Woe: Sense and Sensibility in Writing Nineteenth-Century History.” Reviews in American History 31, no. 3 (2003): 331–341.

Clarkson, Leslie A. Feast and Famine : Food and Nutrition in Ireland, 1500-1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Nally, David. “‘That Coming Storm’: The Irish Poor Law, Colonial Biopolitics, and the Great Famine.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 98, no. 3 (2008): 714–741.

Reader, John. Potato : a History of the Propitious Esculent. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009.

Salaman, Redcliffe N. The History and Social Influence of the Potato. Cambridge: University Press, 1970.

Standage, Tom. An Edible History of Humanity. 1st U.S. ed. New York: Walker & Co., 2009.

History of the Chicago Style

From the Chicago Manual of Style website:

"The history of The Chicago Manual of Style spans more than one hundred years, beginning in 1891 when the University of Chicago Press first opened its doors. At that time, the Press had its own composing room with experienced typesetters who were required to set complex scientific material as well as work in such then-exotic fonts as Hebrew and Ethiopic. Professors brought their handwritten manuscripts directly to the compositors, who did their best to decipher them. The compositors then passed the proofs to the “brainery”—the proofreaders who corrected typographical errors and edited for stylistic inconsistencies. To bring a common set of rules to the process, the staff of the composing room drew up a style sheet, which was then passed on to the rest of the university community. Even at such an early stage, “the University Press style book and style sheet” was considered important enough to be preserved, along with other items from the Press’s early years, in the cornerstone of the new Press building in 1903."

University of Chicago. "History of the Manual." Chicago Manual of Style Online. Last modified 2010.

     Accessed August 24, 2012.