French Political Cartoon, 1840 (Wikimedia Commons)
Shows an Englishman ordering the emperor of China to buy opium. Another Chinese man lies dead on the ground with troops in the background. The text says: "I tell you to immediately buy this poison. We want you to poison yourself completely, because we need a lot of tea in order to digest our beefsteaks.
The following sources provide overviews of Chinese and American history in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries . They are a quick way to find out the basic facts and recent scholarly interpretations.
When using an article in an encyclopedia or handbook, always check the bibliography for further reading at the end of the article. It will provide a selective list of the books, articles, and, frequently, Web resources considered to be the most up-to-date and reliable.